Like tripartite conferences, advisory bodies and industry committees, they have put in place a sophisticated mechanism to promote collective bargaining. The areas covered by labour law are mainly physical working conditions and conditions of employment and, to the extent required by law, the scope of collective bargaining is limited. Once an interim agreement has been reached between the employer and union representatives, each union member has the opportunity to vote in favour of its acceptance or rejection. If at least 50% of union members who vote accept the agreement, it becomes legally binding. If union members do not accept the agreement, the employer and union representatives can continue negotiations. Alternatively, the union may call for a strike vote. In addition, a strike vote must obtain at least 50% of the vote. Very rarely, if a union cannot obtain ratification or strike authorization, it will waive its right to represent workers. Collective agreements in Germany are legally binding, which is accepted by the public, and this is not a cause for concern.  [Failed verification] While in the United Kingdom there was (and probably still is) an “she and us” attitude in labour relations, the situation is very different in post-war Germany and in some other northern European countries. In Germany, the spirit of cooperation between the social partners is much greater. For more than 50 years, German workers have been represented by law on boards of directors.
 Together, management and workers are considered “social partners.”  The main objective of the organization is to perform the work of staff at a minimum cost in the workplace and thus achieve a high profit rate. Maximum labour use is a must for effective management. To this end, cooperation on the part of workers is necessary and collective bargaining is an instrument for achieving and promoting cooperation. Labour disputes are most often due to certain direct or indirect causes and are due to rumours and misunderstandings. Collective bargaining is the best way to maintain cordial relations. The right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the ability to organize fundamental human rights unions.  Point 2 (a) of the International Labour Organization`s statement on fundamental principles and rights in the workplace defines “freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining” as an essential worker`s right.  The 1948 Convention on Freedom of Association and the Protection of the Right to Organization (C087) and several other conventions protect collective bargaining in particular by creating international labour standards that deter countries from violating workers` right to co-association and collective bargaining.
 In its own words: “Most collective bargaining (agreements) were at the factory level, although branch agreements were (quite) common in important textile centres such as Bombay and Ahmedabad… Such agreements also exist in the southern plantation industry, Assam and the coal industry. That said, in new industries – chemistry, oil, oil refining and distribution, aluminum and electrical equipment, auto repair – dispute resolution through voluntary agreements has become commonplace in recent years. In ports and wharves, collective agreements have played a role in the various centres. For some issues concerning all ports, all Of India`s agreements have been concluded. In the banking sector, employers and unions have moved closer to collective agreements following the series of awards in recent years. In the life insurance company (LIC), with the exception of the employer`s decision to introduce automation that disrupted industrial harmony in some centres, there was a fair discussion between the parties for dispute resolution. Collective bargaining cannot be