The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA) (CUSFTA) was a Canada-U.S. trade agreement, a trade agreement between Canada and the United States of America, a trade agreement concluded by negotiators for Canada and the United States on October 4, 1987 and signed by the heads of state and government of both countries on January 2. , 1988. The agreement gradually removed a wide range of trade restrictions over a ten-year period and resulted in a significant increase in cross-border trade as an improvement over the last replaced trade agreement.  With Mexico`s accession in 1994, the free trade agreement was replaced by the French-language North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN).  At times, President Trump has threatened to withdraw from NAFTA. The government has also submitted some proposals that Canada and Mexico have found unacceptable or unenforceable, which have become sticking points in the negotiations. The overall vision of the U.S. proposals appears to be aimed at reducing bilateral trade deficits with Canada and Mexico and repatriating manufacturing jobs to the United States. If these objectives are not achievable, they can be used as a pretext to withdraw from the talks. Economists generally say that trade deficits and job creation depend more on macroeconomic conditions than on free trade agreements (FTAs).
On most issues, the dynamics of the negotiations pitted the United States in general against Canada and Mexico, which are more interested in modernizing the agreement and oppose proposals to limit trade. The USMCA is expected to have a very small impact on the economy.  An International Monetary Fund (IMF) discussion paper published at the end of March 2019 stated that the agreement would have a “negligible” impact on the general economy.   The IMF study predicted that the USMCA “would have a negative impact on trade in the automotive, textile and clothing sectors, while achieving modest welfare gains, mainly due to improved access to the goods market, with a negligible impact on real GDP.”  The IMF study concluded that the economic benefits of the USMCA would be significantly enhanced if Trump`s trade war were to end (i.e., the United States lowers tariffs on steel and aluminum imports from Canada and Mexico and Canada and Mexico lowering retaliatory duties on imports from the United States) . Canada operates a restrictive supply management system for milk, poultry and eggs, a program that has been explicitly excluded from NAFTA (see box below). The Trump administration wants to encourage Canada to dismantle the system, while Canada has pledged to shut down the system. Previous agreements that Canada has concluded, such as the TPP, have allowed better access to the market without dismantling the system. For its part, Canada says any discussion of supply management should include milk subsidies in the United States. U.S. dairy farmers are also concerned about export restrictions on ultra-filtered milk. This protein-rich product, which was not developed at the time of NAFTA and does not contain a customs line, was one of the only dairy products exported freely to Canada.
However, a new Canadian ingredient pricing strategy has jeopardized this access by encouraging Canadian workers to use domestic ingredients relative to imported ingredients.82 The current conflict (Lumber V) began with the expiration of the 2006 Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA).